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Lenders Up to Old Tricks? Ex-Chief Appraiser Sues Stearns Lending

By Isaac Peck
 
A recent lawsuit filed against Stearns Lending and its AMC, Trimavin, by the AMC’s former Chief Appraiser, Katherine A. Scheri, alleges that many of the practices that led to the extensive regulation of the appraisal industry are alive and well at one AMC/lender at least.

Appraiser Lists
In late 2011, Katherine Scheri was hired as the Chief Appraiser of Trimavin, an in-house AMC owned by Stearns Lending, a privately held lender who funded over $25 billion in loans over the last three years.  Scheri has over 10 years of experience as a field appraiser, review appraiser, and appraisal manager.  Prior to being appointed Chief Appraiser at Trimavin, Scheri worked as an appraiser manager overseeing a staff of nine certified appraisers and two trainees.

Among her responsibilities as Chief Appraiser, Scheri was charged with managing Trimavin’s active appraiser panel and overseeing the Appraisal Review Department.  Upon assuming her position, Scheri implemented an internal process for appraisal reviews, and, the suit alleges, put an end to Trimavin’s practice of having reviews performed by appraisers who were not licensed in the state of the appraisal.  Scheri also implemented a policy that only FHA certified appraisers could review FHA/USDA appraisals.

According to the suit, Scheri quickly learned that Stearns Lending had implemented a marketing program aimed at recruiting mortgage brokers and loan officers that promised them that their own personal lists of preferred appraisers would be added to Trimavin’s appraiser panel and would be used on the loans that they submitted. The result, according to the suit, was that private appraiser panels were created for each mortgage broker or loan officer at a given branch.

According to the suit, Scheri began pushing back against this practice and immediately began receiving emails and phone calls from loan officers, branch managers, and mortgage brokers complaining that their preferred appraisers were not being used on their loans and insisting that Stearns Lending had promised them that they could use their own appraisers. The suit alleges that Scheri notified the CEO of Trimavin, Eric Dellorusso, that it is in direct violation of the appraisal independence regulations of Dodd-Frank as well as Regulation Z of the Truth in Lending Act, for individuals in the loan production department to directly or indirectly select (or exclude) an appraiser for a particular appraisal.

Not long after a meeting was held with upper management from Stearns Lending and Trimavin to discuss Scheri’s concerns.  According to the suit, upper management of both Trimavin and Stearns insisted that there is nothing wrong with loan officers providing lists of their preferred appraisers because those names are “blended” with the list of approved appraisers.  Scheri responded that such selection is in violation of appraiser independence regulations and Regulation Z of TILA.  Additionally, Scheri soon learned that the ranking of appraisers was done in such a way that the “preferred” appraisers were always utilized first, according to the suit. Despite her admonitions, the practice of using loan officer’s preferred appraisers continued.

According to Richard Hagar, SRA, an experienced litigation consultant and expert on appraiser independence regulations, if Scheri’s allegations are true, then Stearns Lending violated numerous federal regulations governing the appraisal process, including Regulation Z of the Truth in Lending Act. “The law is very clear on this point. There is no excuse for there being ANY kind of referrals or recommendations of appraisers from loan officers.  Loan officers are sales people, they work in a completely separate function and they wouldn’t know a quality appraisal if it was staring them in the face. To most loan officers, good appraisers are the ones who meet value,” says Hagar.

Hagar says that even if an AMC’s appraisal panel is thin in some areas, that is no excuse for letting loan officers influence the selection of appraisers. “The law doesn’t say ‘no loan officer influence, except in those areas where your appraiser panel is thin.’  Loan officers should never recommend or communicate the names of any appraisers to the Chief Appraiser or to personnel managing the approved appraisal panel.  To do so is a violation of appraiser independence regulations and should warrant a fine of $10,000 a day for as long as management was aware of the problem. What we’ve seen with some of lenders and AMCs in the industry is, now that the system has been around for a couple of years, they are trying to figure out ways to manipulate and get around the law,” says Hagar. (For more, see Hagar’s upcoming live webinar on how to recognize and handle illegal influence: Top Five Questions Asked of an Appraiser and How to Answer.)

Builder Lists
Scheri’s suit alleges that during her tenure, Stearns Lending was conducting a joint venture with builder William Lyon Homes.  The Vice President of the joint venture, Jason Forman, formulated a list of “approved” appraisers, according to the suit, and used only this customized list of appraisers on all appraisals performed for loans with William Lyon Homes.  Lately, builders have been particularly vocal when it comes to appraiser issues, with the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) publishing a white paper which calls for wide-scale appraisal reform because of “extreme bias…imbedded in the home valuation process.”  Appraiser Tim Andersen discusses NAHB’s whitepaper in Working RE’s most recent News Edition: Home Builder’s Whitepaper: Appraisers are Idiots.

Remembering Countrywide
In May 2012, Brian Hale, former CEO of MetLife Bank, was hired as CEO of Stearns Lending.  Before serving as the CEO of MetLife Bank, which was forced to exit the residential mortgage market during his tenure, Hale was the Chief Operations Officer at Countrywide Home Loans, which was later revealed as having one of the most toxic mortgage portfolios in the nation.

Shortly after Hale was hired at Stearns, Scheri alleges that she observed a printed list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of appraisers in Dellorusso’s office.  When she asked what the list was, Scheri alleges that Dellorusso told her that he had been given a list of appraisers by Hale and that those were the appraisers that Trimavin would be using going forward. During this time, Trimavin had just finished purchasing a new Collateral Management System (CMS) from FNC as well as a select list of 8,500 appraisers rated with exceptional quality scores and vetted based on their qualifications, the suit alleges.

Instead of utilizing the list that Trimavin had, Scheri’s suit alleges that Dellorusso hired temporary workers to key in the printed appraiser list that Hale provided.  Additionally, once the system was rolled out, Scheri observed that the list of 8,500 “qualified” appraisers was never imported into the CMS system and that the rating system within the CMS only utilized those appraisers who were on the list Hale provided.

Throughout her time as Chief Appraiser, Scheri alleges, she continued to receive threatening phone calls and emails from loan production personnel demanding that appraisers be added or removed from the approved appraiser panel.  In some cases, they would request that a second appraisal be performed by “their” appraiser when they did not like the value opinion of the original appraiser.  Scheri continued to respond that such actions were in violation of federal regulations and that she would not comply with such requests.

End of the Road
In December 2012, Scheri alleges that she was told by Dellorusso that he felt the stress of her job was affecting her and that she should consider transferring to a different position within the company.  Furthermore, Dellorusso told her that he believed a man could handle the stress of the job as Chief Appraiser better than she could, according to the suit.  Scheri responded that she wasn’t interested in moving to a different position as she had been hired to make sure Trimavin’s appraisal process was in accordance with applicable laws.

The next day, the suit alleges, Scheri was told that she was being insubordinate and that Dellorusso was going to make the decisions regarding the appraiser process and which appraisers would be placed on the panel.  Once again, Scheri alleges, she made it clear that the actions Dellorusso was taking were illegal and that she was not willing to risk her license and would not go along with it.

Within a few weeks, Scheri came across her job posted online.  After confronting Dellorusso and taking the issue to the human resources and legal departments, she was terminated by Trimavin in January 2013 because, the suit alleges, management indicated it had “lost confidence in her ability to manage.”  Scheri declined the severance package which included a confidentiality clause, and chose instead to sue Trimavin and Stearns Lending for unlawful retaliation and wrongful termination in violation of public policy.

Stearns Denies Any Wrongdoing
For its part, Stearns Lending denies the allegations laid out in the suit.  Representing Stearns is attorney Greg S. Labate, Esq.  Labate issued the following statement to Working RE: “TriMavin and Stearns Lending have thoroughly investigated the claims made by Ms. Scheri, a former employee of TriMavin, and have determined that her lawsuit has absolutely no merit whatsoever. TriMavin and Stearns Lending will vigorously defend themselves against Ms. Scheri’s false accusations, and they look forward to their day in court to disprove these frivolous and malicious allegations.”

Appraiser Independence
Scheri’s allegations echo what many appraisers have been saying all along; that lenders continue to manipulate the appraisal process by using carefully filtered lists of appraisers who don’t cause “trouble” and by “blacklisting” (or not using) appraisers who resist compliance.

Earlier this year, in an interview with Working RE, Kyle Lagow, the appraiser whistleblower at Countrywide Financial, said that even though his case helped lead to a $1 billion settlement between the Department of Justice and Bank of America, he doesn’t see that much has changed in the appraisal industry.  “The same people who were in charge when this fraud took place are still here. My supervisor at Landsafe, the area manager, is still there. The appraiser who was completing 400 appraisals a month in Texas still has his license. So you tell me, what’s changed?” said Lagow.

Appraiser Thomas J. Inserra, MBA, MAI, SRA, who served as the National Chief Appraiser for the FDIC/RTC during the 1990s, reports that from what he’s seen across the industry of late there are still many lenders who are breaking the law and conducting business the way they did during the real estate boom. “There are still many hold-outs who continue to believe they can simply waive or ignore rules, laws or procedures that they just don’t like. In fact, some would argue that there is a new wave of ‘dumb’ lenders going back to the old practices,” says Inserra.

Conducting business like in the “good old days” means sidestepping the appraisal process with appraisers continuing to face challenges to their independence.  “I have had recent conversations with CEOs and top executives of very large financial institutions who say they believe that to be competitive today and into the future, they must focus on comprehensive risk management. And they shake their heads in disbelief over what some lenders are doing today- a total repeat of the conduct that led to the crisis- manipulation and control of the appraiser process to the point of breaching independence and attaining advocacy,” says Inserra.

Editor’s Postscript: Full Circle
The “firewall” imposed between appraisers and lenders by the Home Valuation Code of Conduct (HVCC) ended direct business relationships between appraisers and their mortgage broker/lender clients. It resulted in a land-office business for a new crop of appraisal management companies (AMCs) and the demise of many small appraisal businesses.  With this monumental shift came a significant pay cut for most residential real estate appraisers and a diminution in their ability to compete on quality and service and personal relationships.

With so many appraisers forced out of business in recent years, things have improved for those who remain. Fees are rising due to supply and demand.  And the tables have turned a bit with appraisers better able to pick and choose which AMCs they will do business with rather than the other way around.  Appraisers are negotiating higher fees and more reasonable turn times. With so much work, they can choose to work with the very best clients. But even in these “better days,” many insist that the pressure to influence value still exists in many forms.

Scheri’s case, if true, brings the issue of appraiser regulations and independence full circle.  Veteran appraisers will remember that HVCC was born out of an investigation into WaMu and eAppraiseIT, by then New York Attorney General Andrew M. Cuomo’s, that eventually wound its way to up to the honchos at Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac, who quicker than you can say “golden parachute,” settled with Cuomo by agreeing to HVCC.  As HVCC ended the investigation into Fannie and Freddie, it marked the beginning of the end for many appraisers.

This is from a WRE story at the time: “WaMu became unhappy with eAppraiseIT appraisers when they supplied appraisal values that were too low for WaMu to close loans. WaMu’s loan production staff was then allegedly allowed to personally select appraisers who they believed would provide the values WaMu wanted.”  Sound familiar?  The allegations in Scheri’s suit echo what many appraisers have been saying all along, that the behavior that prompted intense scrutiny and regulation, and the demise of many appraisers, is alive and well.

Another Stubborn Appraiser
Veteran appraisers may also remember the story of another stubborn appraiser, Pam Crowley, CRA, who gave a clarion call prior to the real estate collapse.  Fed up with relentless lender pressure in 2005, Crowley began collecting evidence from appraisers and forwarding it to the GSEs, regulators and others.  She eventually took the project online with AppraisalFraudwatchlist.org in 2007 (now defunct).  Crowley was sued for defamation by eAppraiseIT (of Cuomo lawsuit fame- see above) in 2007. The suit was dropped by eAppraiseIT in 2008. Find the story here, unlocked from the WRE archives.  (The archives are a benefit of those who place their insurance with OREP or who subscribe to Working RE.)
 

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Comments (6)

  1. The irony here is that back when mortgage brokers and loan officers could order appraisals directly, I had greater appraiser independence because I had a seemingly unlimited number of clients and no single one controlled a significant portion of my business. If the demands of the client would cause me to violate USPAP, I would simply turn them down and go on to the next order. And if they didn’t like the results of the appraisal, there was no undo pressure to change the report because I had already collected the fee. But really, when I took the time to explain my analysis, 99% of the time I found the clients to be understanding. Disappointed, but understanding.

    With the AMC’s, I find that they influence value by putting often unrealistic requirements in the appraisal order, and we always have the cloud of being blacklisted and not being paid hanging over us. I find that working with AMC’s results in far less appraiser independence than there used to be, before the HVCC.

    That Andrew Cuomo guy really messed things up in what appears to be a quest for his political ambitions. All he did was consolidate appraisal ordering into the hands of a few resulting in the driving down fees of fees to appraisers, driving up fees to homeowners, loss of appraiser independence, and expansion of a new and government protected profit center for large institutions.

  2. Maybe, when she got hired she was told the company follows the rules, like we all are told publically. She was only there about a year according to the article. I chose to give her the benefit of the doubt as to what happened. If she is telling the truth, she deserves our support don’t you think?

  3. C’Mon Man…

    She knew exactly what she was getting into — however a Chief Appraiser job seemed to be her goal. I personally dealt with these people — and the lists she speaks about, were not the only lists in her office. She maintained an exclusionary list of appraisers, based on her personal opinion of how she viewed the industry. This lady was noted as standing by every policy Trimavin had for a lengthy period of time, and I have no respect for that. Now she wants the industry to believe she’s a victim, when in fact she helped to victimize many appraisers who wouldnt do as she said. You cant have it both ways. You know the old saying, “You’re not a little bit pregnant — you either are, or you’re not”. She signed on, and stood for everything that’s wrong with this industry.

  4. It sounds like she was trying to do what was right, even when it was very unpopular and cost her job. I don’t think it’s fair to criticize her, or even the other people that work there that are just doing what they’re told by people that know better. If more people with some rank had some integrity and tried to do what’s right, we would all be better off. I commend her.

  5. I was there when Wertz came forward, and I was there to take a complete beating from eAppraiseIT, when I wouldnt do as the former WAMU employee, turned regional appraiser manager cast his shadow on reality. I did one assignment for Trimavin, and trying to get paid turned into a nightmare. Seemed to me to be a bunch of clowns, including the chief appraiser. How exactly did she think it was going to go? Its an AMC. Your signature pays the salary of these ex Walmart employees. Just think, last week they were greating shoppers, and handing out shopping carts — now they call the shots on million dollar appraisals. Yes they have a list, do you think we dont know that? It isnt going to change until such time, appraisers are allowed to break free from this festival of ignorance — including the NAR, and title company (AMC) business models. She (chief) could have consulted with Wertz, or myself in regard to how an AMC operates. Could have saved you a lot of pain. I love the rose colored glasses articles claiming things are getting better — its not getting better. 80k active appraisers dont stand a chance against the mega-giant title companies, and banking pros calling the shots…

  6. Yes, sounds so very familiar. I agree with Lagow’s sentiments above. I am an appraiser. I sued Wamu, First American, Fidelity, and a loan manager at Wamu named Susan Richter in 2008 for a similar 2007 incident. The case was “settled to the mutual satisfaction of the parties” just prior to Wamu’s bankruptcy. I saw some Wamu staff members go on to Chase, while others were laid off. Guess which ones? I saw Kerry Killinger walk away with his bonus. I’ve been interviewed and subpoenaed by everyone under the sun, OTS, FBI, you name it. No criminal charges were every brought against anyone that I’m aware of. As recently as about 2 months ago, I had a process server hand me a subpoena for a deposition for the latest class action against First American. My comment to the Plaintiff’s attorney, “nobody is getting their house or job back now”.

    I feel for Katherine Scheri. I’m on the OREA website in California if you need to talk to someone for moral support.

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